Author Archives: Andrew Holt Ph.D.

About Andrew Holt Ph.D.

Dr. Andrew Holt is Professor of History at Florida State College at Jacksonville. Prior to his appointment at FSCJ in the Fall of 2010, he taught various history courses at the University of North Florida, Santa Fe College, and the University of Florida. He is co-editor (with James Muldoon) of Competing Voices from the Crusades (Oxford, 2008), Seven Myths of the Crusades (with Alfred J. Andrea) under contract with Hackett Publishing, and is also currently co-editor (with Florin Curta) of Great Events in Religion: An Encyclopedia of Pivotal Events in Religious History (3 Vols.) under contract with ABC-Clio. He has also published numerous scholarly essays in edited volumes or academic reference works and is the former editor of the crusades section of the Oxford Bibliographies Online (offered by Oxford University Press). He holds a doctorate in history from the University of Florida and his primary areas of study/interest include the crusades, ecclesiastical history, medieval Islamic history, gender history, and the modern Middle East. He has had been invited on several occasions to provide commentary and analysis on current events in the Middle East on local television and radio programs in N. Florida. He is also a former U.S. Marine and the proud father of three beautiful children. Along with his wife and children, he is very slowly (and painfully) working toward his Black Belt in Tae Kwon Do.

“Effeminate Greeks” in the Crusading Era

Editor’s note: The following essay is reprinted from The World of the Crusades: A Daily Life Encyclopedia by Andrew Holt. Copyright © 2019 by ABC-CLIO, LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of ABC-CLIO, LLC, Santa Barbara, CA. (Ordering information provided below).

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Effeminate Greeks

Antagonism between Greek- and Latin-speaking peoples can be traced back well before the Middle Ages, but historians have highlighted how the crusading era witnessed a significant deterioration in relations between the two, as best reflected in the often-hostile views between Eastern Byzantine Christians and Latin Christians from western Europe. While each side envisioned the other through stereotypes that were meant to diminish the other side culturally, one of the more curious charges made by Latin Christian authors against the Byzantines was that of the “effeminate Greek.” Continue reading

Archaeology and Modern Scholarship on the Crusades: An Interview with Dr. Adrian J. Boas

As president of the Society for the Study of the Crusades in the Latin East, the most influential and authoritative scholarly organization devoted to the study of medieval crusading, Israeli archaeologist Adrian J. Boas is at the forefront of efforts to promote better understandings of the crusading movement among both scholars and the public. He is an ideal leader for such an organization, as not only is he a leading scholar of the crusades, widely respected by other scholars, but he is also an excellent ambassador for the field, as he is accessible and active as a public scholar through his many invited lectures or participation in international conferences as well as through his highly regarded blog and social media presence. Continue reading

Death Estimates for the Crusades

*See also- Modern Scholars on the Casualty Rates for Participants of the First Crusade

Provided below are various death estimates for the crusades to the east roughly covering the period from 1095 to 1291. The extreme range of figures, from one million to nine million, suggests the futility of trying to pin down such a figure with any precision. Modern historians of the crusades tend not to make or trust such estimates, as they are skeptical of the ability of anyone to count the deaths of participants over such long periods of time (nearly 200 years) with any precision and weary of the methodological problems this entails.[1] Nevertheless, such figures are often cited by the media or online and these are likely their sources (presented from lowest to highest). Continue reading

Counting “Religious Wars” in the Encyclopedia of Wars

Over the last few years I have noticed a relatively common online tactic in refuting the argument that “religion is the cause of most wars or violence” is to cite Charles Phillips and Alan Axelrod Encyclopedia of Wars, a monumental three volume encyclopedia of ancient, medieval, and modern wars published in 2005. Online, one will find memes like the one below, that shows only a relatively small number of the 1,763 wars cataloged by Phillips and Axelrod, 123 to be precise, were considered “religious wars.” Continue reading

More Myths of the Crusades: A Panel Discussion at Leeds in 2019.

I’d encourage any interested readers of this blog attending the International Medieval Congress at the University of Leeds in the summer of 2019 to consider attending the following round table discussion sponsored by the Northern Network for the Study of the Crusades.

More Myths of the Crusades: A Follow up to Seven Myths of the Crusade – A Round Table Discussion

The panel includes a range of junior and senior scholars who, as a follow up to the 2015 book Seven Myths of the Crusades, will be considering additional crusade myths.

The panelists include:

Among the topics that will be considered are the following: Continue reading

The 20th century’s Bloodiest “Megamurderers” according to Prof. R.J. Rummel

“The more constrained the power of governments, the more power is diffused, checked, and balanced, the less it will aggress on others and commit democide. At the extremes of power, totalitarian communist governments slaughter their people by the tens of millions; in contrast, many democracies can barely bring themselves to execute even serial murderers.”

Prof. R.J. Rummel, Death By Government (New Brunswick and London: Transaction, 1994), 2. Continue reading